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New submissions

[ total of 11 entries: 1-11 ]
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New submissions for Tue, 17 Jul 18

[1]  arXiv:1807.05381 [pdf, other]
Title: Eavesdropping Whilst You're Shopping: Balancing Personalisation and Privacy in Connected Retail Spaces
Comments: 10 pages, 1 figure, Proceedings of the PETRAS/IoTUK/IET Living in the Internet of Things Conference, London, United Kingdom, 28-29 March 2018
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Physical retailers, who once led the way in tracking with loyalty cards and `reverse appends', now lag behind online competitors. Yet we might be seeing these tables turn, as many increasingly deploy technologies ranging from simple sensors to advanced emotion detection systems, even enabling them to tailor prices and shopping experiences on a per-customer basis. Here, we examine these in-store tracking technologies in the retail context, and evaluate them from both technical and regulatory standpoints. We first introduce the relevant technologies in context, before considering privacy impacts, the current remedies individuals might seek through technology and the law, and those remedies' limitations. To illustrate challenging tensions in this space we consider the feasibility of technical and legal approaches to both a) the recent `Go' store concept from Amazon which requires fine-grained, multi-modal tracking to function as a shop, and b) current challenges in opting in or out of increasingly pervasive passive Wi-Fi tracking. The `Go' store presents significant challenges with its legality in Europe significantly unclear and unilateral, technical measures to avoid biometric tracking likely ineffective. In the case of MAC addresses, we see a difficult-to-reconcile clash between privacy-as-confidentiality and privacy-as-control, and suggest a technical framework which might help balance the two. Significant challenges exist when seeking to balance personalisation with privacy, and researchers must work together, including across the boundaries of preferred privacy definitions, to come up with solutions that draw on both technology and the legal frameworks to provide effective and proportionate protection. Retailers, simultaneously, must ensure that their tracking is not just legal, but worthy of the trust of concerned data subjects.

[2]  arXiv:1807.05720 [pdf]
Title: Governing autonomous vehicles: emerging responses for safety, liability, privacy, cybersecurity, and industry risks
Comments: Transport Reviews, 2018
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR); Human-Computer Interaction (cs.HC); Machine Learning (cs.LG)

The benefits of autonomous vehicles (AVs) are widely acknowledged, but there are concerns about the extent of these benefits and AV risks and unintended consequences. In this article, we first examine AVs and different categories of the technological risks associated with them. We then explore strategies that can be adopted to address these risks, and explore emerging responses by governments for addressing AV risks. Our analyses reveal that, thus far, governments have in most instances avoided stringent measures in order to promote AV developments and the majority of responses are non-binding and focus on creating councils or working groups to better explore AV implications. The US has been active in introducing legislations to address issues related to privacy and cybersecurity. The UK and Germany, in particular, have enacted laws to address liability issues, other countries mostly acknowledge these issues, but have yet to implement specific strategies. To address privacy and cybersecurity risks strategies ranging from introduction or amendment of non-AV specific legislation to creating working groups have been adopted. Much less attention has been paid to issues such as environmental and employment risks, although a few governments have begun programmes to retrain workers who might be negatively affected.

[3]  arXiv:1807.05738 [pdf, other]
Title: Optional Data Disclosure and the Online Privacy Paradox: A UK Perspective
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure
Journal-ref: Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9750 (2016)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

Opinion polls suggest that the public value their privacy, with majorities calling for greater control of their data. However, individuals continue to use online services which place their personal information at risk, comprising a Privacy Paradox. Previous work has analysed this phenomenon through after-the-fact comparisons, but not studied disclosure behaviour during questioning. We physically surveyed UK cities to study how the British public regard privacy and how perceptions differ between demographic groups. Through analysis of optional data disclosure, we empirically examined whether those who claim to value their privacy act privately with their own data. We found that both opinions and self-reported actions have little effect on disclosure, with over 99\% of individuals revealing private data needlessly. We show that not only do individuals act contrary to their opinions, they disclose information needlessly even whilst describing themselves as private. We believe our findings encourage further analysis of data disclosure, as a means of studying genuine privacy behaviour.

[4]  arXiv:1807.05746 [pdf, other]
Title: Future Scenarios and Challenges for Security and Privacy
Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure, Proceedings of the 2nd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry (2016)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

Over the past half-century, technology has evolved beyond our wildest dreams. However, while the benefits of technological growth are undeniable, the nascent Internet did not anticipate the online threats we routinely encounter and the harms which can result. As our world becomes increasingly connected, it is critical we consider what implications current and future technologies have for security and privacy. We approach this challenge by surveying 30 predictions across industry, academia and international organisations to extract a number of common themes. Through this, we distill 10 emerging scenarios and reflect on the impact these might have on a range of stakeholders. Considering gaps in best practice and requirements for further research, we explore how security and privacy might evolve over the next decade. We find that existing guidelines both fail to consider the relationships between stakeholders and do not address the novel risks from wearable devices and insider threats. Our approach rigorously analyses emerging scenarios and suggests future improvements, of crucial importance as we look to pre-empt new technological threats.

[5]  arXiv:1807.05754 [pdf, other]
Title: The Perfect Storm: The Privacy Paradox and the Internet-of-Things
Comments: 9 pages, 1 figure, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES) (2016)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

Privacy is a concept found throughout human history and opinion polls suggest that the public value this principle. However, while many individuals claim to care about privacy, they are often perceived to express behaviour to the contrary. This phenomenon is known as the Privacy Paradox and its existence has been validated through numerous psychological, economic and computer science studies. Several contributory factors have been suggested including user interface design, risk salience, social norms and default configurations. We posit that the further proliferation of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) will aggravate many of these factors, posing even greater risks to individuals' privacy. This paper explores the evolution of both the paradox and the IoT, discusses how privacy risk might alter over the coming years, and suggests further research required to address a reasonable balance. We believe both technological and socio-technical measures are necessary to ensure privacy is protected in a world of ubiquitous technology.

[6]  arXiv:1807.05756 [pdf, other]
Title: Privacy Salience: Taxonomies and Research Opportunities
Comments: 16 pages, 6 figures
Journal-ref: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology 498 (2017)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

Privacy is a well-understood concept in the physical world, with us all desiring some escape from the public gaze. However, while individuals might recognise locking doors as protecting privacy, they have difficulty practising equivalent actions online. Privacy salience considers the tangibility of this important principle; one which is often obscured in digital environments. Through extensively surveying a range of studies, we construct the first taxonomies of privacy salience. After coding articles and identifying commonalities, we categorise works by their methodologies, platforms and underlying themes. While web browsing appears to be frequently analysed, the Internet-of-Things has received little attention. Through our use of category tuples and frequency matrices, we then explore those research opportunities which might have been overlooked. These include studies of targeted advertising and its affect on salience in social networks. It is through refining our understanding of this important topic that we can better highlight the subject of privacy.

[7]  arXiv:1807.05761 [pdf, other]
Title: "Privacy is the Boring Bit": User Perceptions and Behaviour in the Internet-of-Things
Comments: 10 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST2017) (2017)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Cryptography and Security (cs.CR)

In opinion polls, the public frequently claim to value their privacy. However, individuals often seem to overlook the principle, contributing to a disparity labelled the `Privacy Paradox'. The growth of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) is frequently claimed to place privacy at risk. However, the Paradox remains underexplored in the IoT. In addressing this, we first conduct an online survey (N = 170) to compare public opinions of IoT and less-novel devices. Although we find users perceive privacy risks, many still decide to purchase smart devices. With the IoT rated less usable/familiar, we assert that it constrains protective behaviour. To explore this hypothesis, we perform contextualised interviews (N = 40) with the public. In these dialogues, owners discuss their opinions and actions with a personal device. We find the Paradox is significantly more prevalent in the IoT, frequently justified by a lack of awareness. We finish by highlighting the qualitative comments of users, and suggesting practical solutions to their issues. This is the first work, to our knowledge, to evaluate the Privacy Paradox over a broad range of technologies.

[8]  arXiv:1807.05987 [pdf]
Title: Professional Development of Teachers Using Cloud Services During Non-formal Education
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

The rapid development of cloud services and their implementation in secondary education require an increase in the IC-competence of teachers during non-formal education. The implementation of cloud services will make it possible to create some conditions for learning mobility of all participants of teaching and learning activities. The rapid development of cloud services and their implementation in secondary education require an increase in the IC-competence of teachers during non-formal education. The implementation of cloud services will make it possible to create some conditions for learning mobility of all participants of teaching and learning activities. The paper analyzes the main forms of the organization of teachers learning (workshops, trainings and summer schools). The special features of the non-formal teachers ICT training include the availability of high-speed Internet and some computer equipment. The obtained basic and additional services allow teachers to make the extensive use of cloud services for different activities, namely the organization of students group work and inverted learning, team-work on projects, assistance during homework, preparation for contests, conducting web-quests.

[9]  arXiv:1807.05991 [pdf]
Title: The Evolution of Teaching Methods of Students in Electronic Social Networks
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

The use of electronic social networks (ESN) as a new teaching method that is chosen by modern teachers, who have sufficient professional, information and communication competence, passed several stages of formation and nowadays are widely used in the educational process in secondary schools. The article deals with basic approaches to determining teaching methods in secondary schools through electronic social networks. Main approaches to the selection of teaching methods, particularly through the internal logical path of learning, are defined. Authors demonstrate such teaching methods as: comparison, synthesis, summing up, specification and classification; analytical, synthetic and application of formative assessment. Examples and algorithm of use for each method are given in the article. It is established that the effectiveness of teaching methods depends not only on the same methods but on skills of a teacher to use the functionality of social networks and ICT.

Cross-lists for Tue, 17 Jul 18

[10]  arXiv:1807.05307 (cross-list from cs.LG) [pdf, other]
Title: How Do Classifiers Induce Agents To Invest Effort Strategically?
Subjects: Machine Learning (cs.LG); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Data Structures and Algorithms (cs.DS); Computer Science and Game Theory (cs.GT); Machine Learning (stat.ML)

Machine learning is often used to produce decision-making rules that classify or evaluate individuals. When these individuals have incentives to be classified a certain way, they may behave strategically to influence their outcomes. We develop a model for how strategic agents can invest effort in order to change the outcomes they receive, and we give a tight characterization of when such agents can be incentivized to invest specified forms of effort into improving their outcomes as opposed to "gaming" the classifier. We show that whenever any "reasonable" mechanism can do so, a simple linear mechanism suffices.

Replacements for Tue, 17 Jul 18

[11]  arXiv:1712.08238 (replaced) [pdf, ps, other]
Title: Interventions over Predictions: Reframing the Ethical Debate for Actuarial Risk Assessment
Comments: Accepted paper (not camera-ready version) of FATML 2018 conference, Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Machine Learning, 2018, Proceedings of Machine Learning Research
Subjects: Machine Learning (cs.LG); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Applications (stat.AP)
[ total of 11 entries: 1-11 ]
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