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Computers and Society

New submissions

[ total of 6 entries: 1-6 ]
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New submissions for Fri, 21 Jul 17

[1]  arXiv:1707.06433 [pdf]
Title: Data Aggregation, Fusion and Recommendations for Strengthening Citizens Energy-aware Behavioural Profiles
Comments: To appear in the proceedings of Global IoT Summit 2017
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

In this paper, ENTROPY platform, an IT ecosystem for supporting energy efficiency in buildings through behavioural change of the occupants is provided. The ENTROPY platform targets at providing a set of mechanisms for accelerating the adoption of energy efficient practices through the increase of the energy awareness and energy saving potential of the occupants. The platform takes advantage of novel sensor networking technologies for supporting efficient sensor data aggregation mechanisms, semantic web technologies for unified data representation, machine learning mechanisms for getting insights from the available data and recommendation mechanisms for providing personalised content to end users. These technologies are combined and provided through an integrated platform, targeting at leading to occupants' behavioural change with regards to their energy consumption profiles.

[2]  arXiv:1707.06505 [pdf, other]
Title: Design and Implementation Aspects of Mobile Derived Identities
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

With the ongoing digitalisation of our everyday tasks, more and more eGovernment services make it possible for citizens to take care of their administrative obligations online. This type of services requires a certain assurance level for user authentication. To meet these requirements, a digital identity issued to the citizen is essential. Nowadays, due to the widespread use of smartphones, mobile user authentication is often favoured. This naturally supports two-factor authentication schemes (2FA). We use the term mobile derived identity to stress two aspects: a) the identity is enabled for mobile usage and b) the identity is somehow derived from a physical or digital proof of identity. This work reviews 21 systems that support mobile derived identities. One subset of the considered systems is already in place (public or private sector in Europe), another subset is subject to research. Our goal is to identify prevalent design and implementation aspects for these systems in order to gain a better understanding on best practises and common views on mobile derived identities. We found, that research prefers storing identity data on the mobile device itself whereas real world systems usually rely on cloud storage. 2FA is common in both worlds, however biometrics as second factor is the exception.

[3]  arXiv:1707.06552 [pdf, other]
Title: Towards a scientific blockchain framework for reproducible data analysis
Comments: 8 pages, 1 figure
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Publishing reproducible analyses is a long-standing and widespread challenge for the scientific community, funding bodies and publishers. Although a definitive solution is still elusive, the problem is recognized to affect all disciplines and lead to a critical system inefficiency. Here, we propose a blockchain-based approach to enhance scientific reproducibility, with a focus on life science studies and precision medicine. While the interest of encoding permanently into an immutable ledger all the study key information-including endpoints, data and metadata, protocols, analytical methods and all findings-has been already highlighted, here we apply the blockchain approach to solve the issue of rewarding time and expertise of scientists that commit to verify reproducibility. Our mechanism builds a trustless ecosystem of researchers, funding bodies and publishers cooperating to guarantee digital and permanent access to information and reproducible results. As a natural byproduct, a procedure to quantify scientists' and institutions' reputation for ranking purposes is obtained.

[4]  arXiv:1707.06603 [pdf]
Title: Crowdsourcing, Sharing Economies and Development
Authors: Araz Taeihagh
Journal-ref: Journal of Developing Societies, Vol 33, Issue 2, Pages 191 to 222 (2017)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

What are the similarities and differences between crowdsourcing and sharing economy? What factors influence their use in developing countries? In light of recent developments in the use of IT-mediated technologies, such as crowdsourcing and the sharing economy, this manuscript examines their similarities and differences, and the challenges regarding their effective use in developing countries. We first examine each individually and highlight different forms of each IT-mediated technology. Given that crowdsourcing and sharing economy share aspects such as the use of IT, a reliance on crowds, monetary exchange, and the use of reputation systems, we systematically compare the similarities and differences of different types of crowdsourcing with the sharing economy, thus addressing a gap in the current literature. Using this knowledge, we examine the different challenges faced by developing countries when using crowdsourcing and the sharing economy, and highlight the differences in the applicability of these IT-mediated technologies when faced with specific development issues.

Cross-lists for Fri, 21 Jul 17

[5]  arXiv:1707.06359 (cross-list from math.HO) [pdf]
Title: Recency Bias in the Era of Big Data: The Need to Strengthen the Status of History of Mathematics in Nigerian Schools
Authors: Joshua Abah Abah
Comments: 8 pages
Journal-ref: Advances in Multidisciplinary and Scientific Research Journal, 2(4), December 2016, 241-248
Subjects: History and Overview (math.HO); Computers and Society (cs.CY)

The amount of information available to the mathematics teacher is so enormous that the selection of desirable content is gradually becoming a huge task in itself. With respect to the inclusion of elements of history of mathematics in mathematics instruction, the era of Big Data introduces a high likelihood of Recency Bias, a hitherto unconnected challenge for stakeholders in mathematics education. This tendency to choose recent information at the expense of relevant older, composite, historical facts stands to defeat the aims and objectives of the epistemological and cultural approach to mathematics instructional delivery. This study is a didactic discourse with focus on this threat to the history and pedagogy of mathematics, particularly as it affects mathematics education in Nigeria. The implications for mathematics curriculum developers, teacher-training programmes, teacher lesson preparation, and publication of mathematics instructional materials were also deeply considered.

[6]  arXiv:1707.06613 (cross-list from cs.LG) [pdf, other]
Title: Decoupled classifiers for fair and efficient machine learning
Subjects: Learning (cs.LG); Computers and Society (cs.CY)

When it is ethical and legal to use a sensitive attribute (such as gender or race) in machine learning systems, the question remains how to do so. We show that the naive application of machine learning algorithms using sensitive features leads to an inherent tradeoff in accuracy between groups. We provide a simple and efficient decoupling technique, that can be added on top of any black-box machine learning algorithm, to learn different classifiers for different groups. Transfer learning is used to mitigate the problem of having too little data on any one group.
The method can apply to a range of fairness criteria. In particular, we require the application designer to specify as joint loss function that makes explicit the trade-off between fairness and accuracy. Our reduction is shown to efficiently find the minimum loss as long as the objective has a certain natural monotonicity property which may be of independent interest in the study of fairness in algorithms.

[ total of 6 entries: 1-6 ]
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