# Computers and Society

## New submissions

[ total of 7 entries: 1-7 ]
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### New submissions for Thu, 23 Mar 17

[1]
Title: Computational Thinking in Education: Where does it Fit? A systematic literary review
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Physics Education (physics.ed-ph)

Computational Thinking (CT) has been described as an essential skill which everyone should learn and can therefore include in their skill set. Seymour Papert is credited as concretising Computational Thinking in 1980 but since Wing popularised the term in 2006 and brought it to the international community's attention, more and more research has been conducted on CT in education. The aim of this systematic literary review is to give educators and education researchers an overview of what work has been carried out in the domain, as well as potential gaps and opportunities that still exist.
Overall it was found in this review that, although there is a lot of work currently being done around the world in many different educational contexts, the work relating to CT is still in its infancy. Along with the need to create an agreed-upon definition of CT lots of countries are still in the process of, or have not yet started, introducing CT into curriculums in all levels of education. It was also found that Computer Science/Computing, which could be the most obvious place to teach CT, has yet to become a mainstream subject in some countries, although this is improving. Of encouragement to educators is the wealth of tools and resources being developed to help teach CT as well as more and more work relating to curriculum development. For those teachers looking to incorporate CT into their schools or classes then there are bountiful options which include programming, hands-on exercises and more. The need for more detailed lesson plans and curriculum structure however, is something that could be of benefit to teachers.

[2]
Title: Ethical issues of ISPs in the modern web
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

In recent years, ethical issues in the networking field are getting moreimportant. In particular, there is a consistent debate about how Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should collect and treat network measurements. This kind of information, such as flow records, carry interesting knowledge from multiple points of view: research, traffic engineering and e-commerce can benefit from measurements retrievable through inspection of network traffic. Nevertheless, in some cases they can carry personal information about the users exposed to monitoring, and so generates several ethical issues. Modern web is very different from the one we could experience few years ago; web services converged to few protocols (i.e., HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and HTTPS) and always bigger share of encrypted traffic. The aim of this work is to provide an insight about which information is still visible to ISPs in the modern web and to what extent it carries personal information. We show ethical issues deriving by this new situation and provide general guidelines and best-practices to cope with the collection of network traffic measurements.

### Cross-lists for Thu, 23 Mar 17

[3]  arXiv:1703.07355 (cross-list from cs.SI) [pdf, other]
Title: An Army of Me: Sockpuppets in Online Discussion Communities
Comments: 26th International World Wide Web conference 2017 (WWW 2017)
Subjects: Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph); Applications (stat.AP); Machine Learning (stat.ML)

In online discussion communities, users can interact and share information and opinions on a wide variety of topics. However, some users may create multiple identities, or sockpuppets, and engage in undesired behavior by deceiving others or manipulating discussions. In this work, we study sockpuppetry across nine discussion communities, and show that sockpuppets differ from ordinary users in terms of their posting behavior, linguistic traits, as well as social network structure. Sockpuppets tend to start fewer discussions, write shorter posts, use more personal pronouns such as "I", and have more clustered ego-networks. Further, pairs of sockpuppets controlled by the same individual are more likely to interact on the same discussion at the same time than pairs of ordinary users. Our analysis suggests a taxonomy of deceptive behavior in discussion communities. Pairs of sockpuppets can vary in their deceptiveness, i.e., whether they pretend to be different users, or their supportiveness, i.e., if they support arguments of other sockpuppets controlled by the same user. We apply these findings to a series of prediction tasks, notably, to identify whether a pair of accounts belongs to the same underlying user or not. Altogether, this work presents a data-driven view of deception in online discussion communities and paves the way towards the automatic detection of sockpuppets.

[4]  arXiv:1703.07362 (cross-list from cs.SI) [pdf, other]
Title: Information spreading during emergencies and anomalous events
Authors: James P. Bagrow
Subjects: Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability (physics.data-an); Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)

The most critical time for information to spread is in the aftermath of a serious emergency, crisis, or disaster. Individuals affected by such situations can now turn to an array of communication channels, from mobile phone calls and text messages to social media posts, when alerting social ties. These channels drastically improve the speed of information in a time-sensitive event, and provide extant records of human dynamics during and afterward the event. Retrospective analysis of such anomalous events provides researchers with a class of "found experiments" that may be used to better understand social spreading. In this chapter, we study information spreading due to a number of emergency events, including the Boston Marathon Bombing and a plane crash at a western European airport. We also contrast the different information which may be gleaned by social media data compared with mobile phone data and we estimate the rate of anomalous events in a mobile phone dataset using a proposed anomaly detection method.

[5]  arXiv:1703.07726 (cross-list from cs.AI) [pdf, other]
Title: \$1 Today or \$2 Tomorrow? The Answer is in Your Facebook Likes
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI)

In economics and psychology, delay discounting is often used to characterize how individuals choose between a smaller immediate reward and a larger delayed reward. People with higher delay discounting rate (DDR) often choose smaller but more immediate rewards (a "today person"). In contrast, people with a lower discounting rate often choose a larger future rewards (a "tomorrow person"). Since the ability to modulate the desire of immediate gratification for long term rewards plays an important role in our decision-making, the lower discounting rate often predicts better social, academic and health outcomes. In contrast, the higher discounting rate is often associated with problematic behaviors such as alcohol/drug abuse, pathological gambling and credit card default. Thus, research on understanding and moderating delay discounting has the potential to produce substantial societal benefits.

### Replacements for Thu, 23 Mar 17

[6]  arXiv:1702.05060 (replaced) [pdf, other]
Title: Mining Behavioral Patterns from Millions of Android Users