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Computers and Society

New submissions

[ total of 14 entries: 1-14 ]
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New submissions for Fri, 19 Jan 18

[1]  arXiv:1801.05831 [pdf, other]
Title: An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics
Comments: To appear in CHI 2018
Journal-ref: Peter Krafft, Nicol\'as Della Penna, Alex Pentland. (2018). An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Human-Computer Interaction (cs.HC); Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)

As cryptocurrencies gain popularity and credibility, marketplaces for cryptocurrencies are growing in importance. Understanding the dynamics of these markets can help to assess how viable the cryptocurrnency ecosystem is and how design choices affect market behavior. One existential threat to cryptocurrencies is dramatic fluctuations in traders' willingness to buy or sell. Using a novel experimental methodology, we conducted an online experiment to study how susceptible traders in these markets are to peer influence from trading behavior. We created bots that executed over one hundred thousand trades costing less than a penny each in 217 cryptocurrencies over the course of six months. We find that individual "buy" actions led to short-term increases in subsequent buy-side activity hundreds of times the size of our interventions. From a design perspective, we note that the design choices of the exchange we study may have promoted this and other peer influence effects, which highlights the potential social and economic impact of HCI in the design of digital institutions.

[2]  arXiv:1801.06043 [pdf, other]
Title: Optimal Weighting for Exam Composition
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI)

A problem faced by many instructors is that of designing exams that accurately assess the abilities of the students. Typically these exams are prepared several days in advance, and generic question scores are used based on rough approximation of the question difficulty and length. For example, for a recent class taught by the author, there were 30 multiple choice questions worth 3 points, 15 true/false with explanation questions worth 4 points, and 5 analytical exercises worth 10 points. We describe a novel framework where algorithms from machine learning are used to modify the exam question weights in order to optimize the exam scores, using the overall class grade as a proxy for a student's true ability. We show that significant error reduction can be obtained by our approach over standard weighting schemes, and we make several new observations regarding the properties of the "good" and "bad" exam questions that can have impact on the design of improved future evaluation methods.

[3]  arXiv:1801.06044 [pdf]
Title: Analysis of the Relation between Artificial Intelligence and the Internet from the Perspective of Brain Science
Comments: 6 pages,3 figures
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Artificial intelligence (AI) like deep learning, cloud AI computation has been advancing at a rapid pace since 2014. There is no doubt that the prosperity of AI is inseparable with the development of the Internet. However, there has been little attention to the link between AI and the internet. This paper explores them with brain insights mainly from four views:1) How is the general relation between artificial intelligence and Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data and Industrial Internet from the perspective of brain science. 2) Construction of a new AI system model with the Internet and brain science.

[4]  arXiv:1801.06047 [pdf]
Title: Engagement in Foundational Computer Science Courses Through Supplementary Content for Algorithms
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Engaging students in teaching foundational Computer Science concepts is vital for the student's continual success in more advanced topics in the field. An idea of a series of Jupyter notebooks was conceived as a way of using Bloom's Taxonomy to reinforce concepts taught in an introductory algorithms class. The idea of the notebook is to keep the student's engaged in the lesson and in turn motivate them to persevere through the end of the course.

[5]  arXiv:1801.06048 [pdf, other]
Title: Deep Learning for Fatigue Estimation on the Basis of Multimodal Human-Machine Interactions
Comments: 12 pages, 10 figures, 1 table; presented at XXIX IUPAP Conference in Computational Physics (CCP2017) July 9-13, 2017, Paris, University Pierre et Marie Curie - Sorbonne (this https URL)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Human-Computer Interaction (cs.HC); Learning (cs.LG)

The new method is proposed to monitor the level of current physical load and accumulated fatigue by several objective and subjective characteristics. It was applied to the dataset targeted to estimate the physical load and fatigue by several statistical and machine learning methods. The data from peripheral sensors (accelerometer, GPS, gyroscope, magnetometer) and brain-computing interface (electroencephalography) were collected, integrated, and analyzed by several statistical and machine learning methods (moment analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, etc.). The hypothesis 1 was presented and proved that physical activity can be classified not only by objective parameters, but by subjective parameters also. The hypothesis 2 (experienced physical load and subsequent restoration as fatigue level can be estimated quantitatively and distinctive patterns can be recognized) was presented and some ways to prove it were demonstrated. Several "physical load" and "fatigue" metrics were proposed. The results presented allow to extend application of the machine learning methods for characterization of complex human activity patterns (for example, to estimate their actual physical load and fatigue, and give cautions and advice).

[6]  arXiv:1801.06049 [pdf, other]
Title: Effects of Home Resources and School Environment on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Achievement in Taiwan
Authors: Jiaqi Cai
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY); Physics Education (physics.ed-ph)

Over the past decades, researchers have explored the relationship among home resources, school environment, and students' mathematics achievement in a large amount of studies. Many of them suggested that rich home resources for learning were related to higher average academic achievement. Some also suggested that the home background was closely associated with the learning environment, and therefore, influenced students' achievements. Thus, this study hypothesized that students who own more home resources would perform better than students who possess fewer resources and that schools that have more socioeconomically advantaged students, located in high-income neighborhoods, and possess more instructional resources would have better mathematics performance. The study focuses on eighth graders in Taiwan and explores the variance in mathematics achievement of students as a function of student and school level differences.

[7]  arXiv:1801.06050 [pdf, other]
Title: A taxonomy of video lecture styles
Comments: 13 pages, 5 figures
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Many educational organizations are employing instructional video in their pedagogy, but there is limited understanding of the possible presentation styles. In practice, the presentation style of video lectures ranges from a direct recording of classroom teaching with a stationary camera and screencasts with voice-over, up to highly elaborate video post-production. Previous work evaluated the effectiveness of several presentation styles, but there has not been any consistent taxonomy, which would have made comparisons and meta-analyses possible. In this article, we surveyed the research literature and we examined contemporary video-based courses, which have been produced by diverse educational organizations and teachers across various academic disciplines. We organized video lectures in two dimensions according to the level of human presence and according to the type of instructional media. In addition to organizing existing video lectures in a comprehensive way, the proposed taxonomy offers a design space that facilitates the choice of a suitable presentation style, as well as the preparation of new ones.

[8]  arXiv:1801.06052 [pdf]
Title: Big Data and Learning Analytics in Higher Education: Demystifying Variety, Acquisition, Storage, NLP and Analytics
Authors: Amal S. Alblawi
Comments: 6 pages , 2017 IEEE Conference on Big Data and Analytics (ICBDA)
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Different sectors have sought to take advantage of opportunities to invest in big data analytics and Natural language processing, in order to improve their productivity and competitiveness. Current challenges facing the higher education sector include a rapidly changing and evolving environment, which necessitates the development of new ways of thinking. Interest has therefore increased in analytics as part of the solution to many issues in higher education, including the rate of student attrition and learner support. This study provides a comprehensive discussion of big data, learning analytics and use of NLP in higher education. In addition, it introduces an integrated learning analytics solution leveraging a distributed technology system capable of supporting academic authorities and advisors at educational institutions in making decisions concerning individual students.

[9]  arXiv:1801.06053 [pdf]
Title: Lab Based Curriculum for CIS and Related Technology
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

The Computer Information System (CIS) is information and communication technology in support of business processes. In this paper, we present a typical undergraduate computer information system curriculum examining the degree of lab intensity and its effect on the course efficacy. A CIS program is usually part of the school of business as it is in support of business processes. We also explore the differences between a CIS curriculum and other computer related technology courses, such as Information Technology (IT), Computer Science (CS), and Software Engineering (SE). The curriculum is composed of several elements such as content and sequence of subjects, classrooms equipped with computer projection, internet, and local network access, and appropriate computing and software infrastructure. We will focus on the importance and adequacy of labs for the CIS curriculum. The proposed CIS curriculum works for a 4-year as well as a 3-year program. This paper provides a recommendation for local and Federal Accreditation agencies and curriculum committees.

[10]  arXiv:1801.06055 [pdf, other]
Title: Detecting Low Rapport During Natural Interactions in Small Groups from Non-Verbal Behaviour
Comments: 12 pages, 6 figures
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

Rapport, the close and harmonious relationship in which interaction partners are "in sync" with each other, was shown to result in smoother social interactions, improved collaboration, and improved interpersonal outcomes. In this work, we are first to investigate automatic prediction of low rapport during natural interactions within small groups. This task is challenging given that rapport only manifests in subtle non-verbal signals that are, in addition, subject to influences of group dynamics as well as inter-personal idiosyncrasies. We record videos of unscripted discussions of three to four people using a multi-view camera system and microphones. We analyse a rich set of non-verbal signals for rapport detection, namely facial expressions, hand motion, gaze, speaker turns, and speech prosody. Using facial features, we can detect low rapport with an average precision of 0.7 (chance level at 0.25), while incorporating prior knowledge of participants' personalities can even achieve early prediction without a drop in performance. We further provide a detailed analysis of different feature sets and the amount of information contained in different temporal segments of the interactions.

[11]  arXiv:1801.06059 [pdf]
Title: Tamil Open-Source Landscape - Opportunities and Challenges
Comments: Tamil Internet Conference (INFITT) 2017, Toronto, Canada
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)

We report in this paper, Tamil open-source software community is a vibrant place with software developers, font designers, translators, voice-over artists, and general user testers, who come together for love of their language, and promotion of critical thinking, and modern language usage in Tamil. We identify a need for institutional support at various stages from grooming software developers in Tamil, to marketing platform for Tamil software. There is bright future for tamil software if we will meet challenges it brings with it.

Cross-lists for Fri, 19 Jan 18

[12]  arXiv:1801.05802 (cross-list from cs.SI) [pdf, other]
Title: Measuring, Understanding, and Classifying News Media Sympathy on Twitter after Crisis Events
Comments: Conditionally accepted for inclusion in the 2018 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18) Papers program
Subjects: Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Computers and Society (cs.CY)

This paper investigates bias in coverage between Western and Arab media on Twitter after the November 2015 Beirut and Paris terror attacks. Using two Twitter datasets covering each attack, we investigate how Western and Arab media differed in coverage bias, sympathy bias, and resulting information propagation. We crowdsourced sympathy and sentiment labels for 2,390 tweets across four languages (English, Arabic, French, German), built a regression model to characterize sympathy, and thereafter trained a deep convolutional neural network to predict sympathy. Key findings show: (a) both events were disproportionately covered (b) Western media exhibited less sympathy, where each media coverage was more sympathetic towards the country affected in their respective region (c) Sympathy predictions supported ground truth analysis that Western media was less sympathetic than Arab media (d) Sympathetic tweets do not spread any further. We discuss our results in light of global news flow, Twitter affordances, and public perception impact.

[13]  arXiv:1801.05916 (cross-list from cs.SI) [pdf]
Title: Citation Analysis of Innovative ICT and Advances of Governance (2008-2017)
Authors: Shuhua (Monica)Liu, Liting Pan, Xiaowei Chen
Subjects: Social and Information Networks (cs.SI); Computers and Society (cs.CY); Digital Libraries (cs.DL)

This paper opens by introducing the Internet Plus Government (IPG), a new government initiative emerging in the last decade. To understand benefits and challenges associated with this initiative worldwide, we conducted analyses on research articles published in the e-governance area between 2008 and 2017. Content analysis and citation analysis were performed on 2105 articles to address three questions: (1) What types of new ICT have been adopted in the IPG initiative in the past decade? (2) How did scholars investigate interactions between the new ICTs and governance core to IPG? (3) How did the new ICTs interact and shape while also being shaped by the evolution of governance in the past decade? Our analysis suggests that IPG initiative has enriched the government information infrastructure. It presented opportunities to accumulate and use huge volume of data for better decision making and proactive government-citizen interaction. At the same time, the advance of open data, the widespread use of social media and the potential of data analytics also generated great pressure to address challenging questions and issues in the domain of e-democracy.

Replacements for Fri, 19 Jan 18

[14]  arXiv:1801.05313 (replaced) [pdf, other]
Title: Digital identity, personal data and privacy protection
Subjects: Computers and Society (cs.CY)
[ total of 14 entries: 1-14 ]
[ showing up to 2000 entries per page: fewer | more ]

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